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Impact of different environments in Europe on yield and quality of sugar beet genotypes

  • Autor/in: Hoffmann, C.M., T. Huijbregts, N. van Swaaij, R. Jansen
  • Jahr: 2009
  • Zeitschrift: European Journal of Agronomy 30, 1
  • Seite/n: 17-26
  • Stichworte: Zuckerrübe, Sorte, Umwelt, Standort, Ertrag, Qualität, Zuckergehalt, Invertzucker, Amino-N, Betain, Züchtung

Abstract

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) yield and quality are determined by genotype and environment. This study aimed at analysing the relative importance of the environment for yield and quality of sugar beet genotypes and at assessing parameters which could give essential improvement for beet quality if included as additional selection criteria. For that purpose, root yield and quality (sugar, K, Na, amino N, total soluble N, betaine, glutamine, invert sugar, raffinose) of 9 sugar beet genotypeswere investigated in 52 environments (25 sites in 2003 and 27 sites in 2004) in randomised field trials across Europe. The environment accounted for about 80% of the total variance for all parameters. Effects of the tested genotypeswere larger for the content of betaine (8.5%) and sugar (7.6%) than for other parameters (1–5%). With the exception of invert sugar and amino N, the genotype by environment interaction was about 3% and thereby lower than the main effect of genotypes. Interactions resulted in an increase of the differences between genotypes which can be used to select genotypes in the most discriminating environments. The response of genotypes in sugar content was contrasting to other parameters and points to a physiological limit for sugar storage at about 20%. As no crossover interaction occurred for root yield or any quality parameter, there seemed to be no specific suitability of the tested genotypes to certain environmental stress conditions. This is probably due to the fact that the harvested beetroot is a vegetative storage organ and has no growth stages susceptible to unfavourable environmental conditions such as flowering and grain filling which are important for final yield in cereals. Invert sugar showed the largest relative differences between genotypes which were strongly enhanced in southern and some south-eastern European environments. Because of its importance during processing, considering invert sugar in breeding could improve technical quality for processing considerably for those extreme environments.
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