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Identification of rhizomania-infected soil in Europe able to overcome Rz1 resistance in sugar beet and comparison with other resistance-breaking soils from different geographic origins

  • Autor/in: Pferdmenges, F., H. Korf, M. Varrelmann
  • Jahr: 2009
  • Zeitschrift: European Journal of Plant Pathology 124
  • Seite/n: 31-43
  • Stichworte: Polymyxa betae sugar beet Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris Beet necrotic yellow vein virus BNYVV Rz1 Sugar beet beet necrotic yellow vein virus

Abstract

Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), is vectored by Polymyxa betae. The disease can only be controlled by growing partially resistant sugar beets, which quantitatively reduce virus replication and spread. None of the known major resistance genes (Rz1, Rz2, Rz3), alone or in combination, are able to prevent BNYVV infection entirely. Here we report for the first time the identification of a Spanish soil, containing an A-type BNYVV with RNA 1-4, displaying Rz1 resistance-breaking abilities comparable to soils from the USA and to those from France containing the French (Pithiviers) P-type BNYVV with RNA 5. A resistance test with several soil samples vs. different sugar beet cultivars was conducted under standardised conditions. Sugar beets were analysed after 12 weeks of greenhouse cultivation for taproot weight, BNYVV and relative P. betae content. The soil samples from Spain, France and the USA produced high virus contents and strong rhizomania symptoms in Rz1 plants, indicative of resistance-breaking abilities. In addition, all resistance-breaking soil samples produced detectable virus concentrations in plant lateral roots of the Rz1 + Rz2 cultivar, and plants grown in the Spanish soil sample also had reduced taproot weight and displayed severe rhizomania disease symptoms. Additionally, the main pathogenicity factor P25, responsible for the formation of BNYVV symptoms, showed high sequence variability in the amino acid tetrad at position 67–70. The results suggest the geographically independent selection of BNYVV resistance-breaking isolates following the uniform cultivation of Rz1-containing sugar beet cultivars.
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