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Efficacy and selectivity of glyphosate and glufosinate in genetically modified sugar beet

  • Autor/in: Wevers, J., M. May, O. Hermann, J. Petersen
  • Jahr: 2005
  • Zeitschrift: In: Genetic modification in sugar beet
  • Verlag: Hrsg. IIRB: Advances in Sugar Beet Research, Vol. 6
  • Seite/n: 45-60

Abstract

The efficacy and selectivity of glyphosate and glufosinate in resistant sugar beet was tested at several sites between 1978 and 2000. In general, glyphosate achieved a very good control of most weed species at all trails sites. This was comparable to and sometimes even better than conventional herbicides, and a more flexible timing of applications is possible, which presents the opportunity of leaving weeds or a cover crop in a sugar beet field to prevent wind or water erosion. The number of applications as well as the total amount of active ingredients used could be reduced compared with conventional weed control in sugar beet. The addition of soil active ingredients to improve the efficacy of glyphosate, particularly to control late emerging weeds, was not necessary. Furthermore, the high efficacy on larger weeds also offers more flexibility in timing weed control, reducing dependence on weather conditions. The control of volunteers, especially volunteer potatoes, would be much easier, provided the volunteers themselves are not resistant to glyphospate. In addition the possibilities for controlling perennial weeds are wider this system. From the years of testing it can be concluded that glyphosate is more selective than the traditional herbicides. The traditional herbicides will cause some yield loss compared to that genetically possible. The extent of yield loss depends on the type and dosage of traditional herbicides applied. The use of glyphosate tolerant sugar beet would lead to yield increases from 2 to 5 %. Glufosinate also generally gave good control of most weed species at all trial sites, which was comparable to and sometimes better than conventional herbicides. Compared to conventional herbicide systems, a more flexible timing of applications is possible, provided the requirement are adhered to. The number of applications as well as number of active ingredients used can be reduced compared to conventional weed control in sugar beet and adding soil active ingredients to improve glufosinate efficacy, especially to reduce late emerging weeds was not necessary. Furthermore, the high efficacy on larger weeds offers the opportunity for weed control according the period threshold concept. The control of volunteers would also be much easier, provided that the volunteers themselves were not resistant to glufosinate. In addition, the possibilities for controlling perennial weeds are wider with this system, but as glufosinate lacks systemic activity, regrowth of these weeds must be expected. From the years of testing it can be concluded that glufosinate is more selective than the traditional herbicides. The traditional herbicides will cause some yield loss compared to the yield genetically possible, the extent of which depends on the type and dosage of the traditional herbicides applied. The use of glufosinate tolerant sugar beet would lead to yield increases from 2 to 5 %, in one case even 10 %.
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